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Origin of the Karaites
and their Teachings
We will in this study attempt to analyze
the often contentious and fiery topic of Rabbinic authority over the
Word of G-d. This issue is intertwined with the topic of the Oral
Torah of Judaism. We will then mainly address one of the many
opposing forces against this Divinely mandated authority - i.e. the
Jewish Karaite movement. Karaite teachings have today become a very
popular haven of retreat for the booming Hebraic Roots Restoration
movement across the world. This movement identifies itself by the
sincere attempts of its adherents to break loose from their
spiritual captivity "in Egypt" - which remains evident as a hangover
from their ancient forefathers' rebellion (as the Northern 10 Tribes
of Israel) against this very Torah authority centered in the Tribe
of Judah in ancient Jerusalem. Unfortunately the Karaite rebellion
against Rabbinic authority and the Oral Torah serves as very fertile
ground for eternalizing the ancient 10-Triber rebellion for which
HaShem rejected them, leaving just ONE Tribe to continue His
Kingdom, i.e. Judah, the very Tribe against whom the Karaites rebel,
replacing themselves as the interpreters of Torah above G-d’s
mandated appointees, the Rabbinic institution, which dates right
back to Moses.
Since the symbol of the Nachash (snake) in Genesis, there has been a
spirit of rebellion against what is obviously G-d’s Words and
Instructions, and against the pious representatives of His unbroken
transmission of those Words - the Rabbis. Numerous times the Torah
says to the Rabbinic leadership [Moses, Aaron, the Elders, Johsua,
Kelev, Etamar, the Judges, the Prophets, etc.] to keep and guard
that very selfsame Torah [i.e. Ex. 20:2, Lev. 29:3, Deut.17, Deut.
The Hebrew Alphabet, like ancient Egyptian and Chinese, is pictorial
- that is, the sacred letters have a graphic dimension. In addition,
these letters have sounds, vowels, numerical value and consonants.
The sounds and pictures described by our sacred letters go together,
as in the song: "love and marriage goes together like a horse and
carriage ... you can’t have one without the other".
The Torah injunction to the Guardians of the Torah, is depicted by
the pictorial representation of the very letters of the Biblical
word 'Shomer' (Guard). It represents a picture of a simple handmade
corral or fence - a field fence made of inter connected branches,
sticks, thorns and thistles. Our Torah leadership are comparable to
Shepherds who need to fence in their beloved sheep, ‘from fear in
the [dangerous] night' [Song of Songs 3:7 -8]. Thus the very
concrete, physical black ink of the shape of the letters cry out for
our leadership to protect and tangibly guard the Torah. That’s not
adding, that’s just protecting. Rabbinic leadership owns itself the
Divinely mandated right to guard the Torah - not to add to or
detract from it, No Rabbi anywhere calls such a protective measure
(directive, hedge or fence), a Torah law. They are merely placing a
hedge of roses around to save the Torah laws from being carelessly
trampled. Thus it is a Biblical directive to make fences around the
Torah Law values. The Torah commands us in no uncertain terms to
make whatever protective decrees that those in authority deem
necessary [Deut.17]. Rabbis are often accused of making their own
'man-made' laws. The fence made by the Shepherd is man made for a
specific purpose indeed, utilizing the Shepherd’s intelligence,
creativity and wisdom. With these concepts now in mind, you can see,
touch, feel and hear the deep Biblical basis for the following
representation as defined by the Mishnah:
• Moses received the Torah from Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua;
• Joshua to the Elders;
• the elders to the Prophets;
• and the Prophets transmitted it to the Men of the Great Assembly
(the 120 leading Prophets and Sages towards the end of the Tanach -
Through Biblical analysis we learn that these above sages reviewed
the Torah many times. They taught three main guiding principles:
• Be exact [deliberate] in judgment - fair, honest, careful and
• build up many students, [develop to an independent level], and
• make a fence for the Torah.‘ Enact provisions and cautionary rules
to safeguard against transgression [ArtScroll Siddur pg. 545].
You know dearest reader and friend, that a Torah Scroll or book is
called a 'Sefer' in Hebrew. So to answer the question: Why did the
Rabbis make a fence around the Torah? The answer is: to make a
Texts for your consideration:
Gen. 49:10: “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver
from between his feet, until Shiloh come; ...’
“that the L-ord’s law may be in your mouth" [Exodus 13;9] - this is
literally 'Oral' Torah.
“These are the statutes and judgments and Torahs” [the Hebrew says
Torahs, in the plural - one oral and one written] Lev, 26;46.
Deuteronomy 17;8 -12 "... and unto the judge that shall be in those
days,.. [we only have the sages of our present days or times].
If the prophet calls Judah the bow and Ephraim the arrow, it means
that Judah by necessity needs to be intuitive, creative and active
in explaining the Torah - just as a archer must be with his students
and when out on missions. An Archer is no good as a mindless robot.
He needs to use his G-d given mind and body to the N’th degree.
In Exodus 20;22 it says "G-d spoke from heaven", and in Deut. 4;36
"... out of heaven He made thee to hear ..."
These are but a few simple examples of how G-d communicated His
Torah orally. All of the Bible was originally oral. Moses received
it word to mouth from G-d Himself on Mt Sinai. Only later did G-d
write the Ten Words on Stone and Moses wrote it on Scrolls.
The same applies to other faiths, i.e. the Koran and NT were
completely oral for many years. Even when the written down process
began, it still took hundreds of years before it was canonized
officially, with many ulterior and/or alternative texts being
Because of the Torah positive Command it was incumbent on each
Israelite to write his own Scroll of the Torah (5 Books). Whereas
this was impossible for every individual to do, they would group
together and hire a scribe to write a Scroll for public and private
reading and studying. In ancient times already, they were counting
the letter and word values for wider and more intellectual
interpretation and understanding of the Bible. (Deut. 31:19 -
Footnote Herz Pentateuch)
Compare this to Christianity though, where the Bible Scriptures were
hoarded by the spiritual leaders and teachers. The Bible was locked
up and available to the priests only for centuries until the advent
of the printing press. Thus, Christian believers were dependant on
the Oral teachings of their priests - but, according to the Church
views. The Church born from Roman Empire times was strongly
anti-Jewish and anti-Semitic and followers had no insight into the
Scriptures itself. Hence an entire anti-Jewish and anti-Torah
religion was instituted to oppose the Rabbinic interpretations.
History abounds of how followers of the Original Bible Faith and of
Jewish principles were persecuted by the Roman Empire. The
monumental buildings testifying to these persecutions remain to this
day in Rome as tourist attractions amongst the palatial buildings of
the new Faith of Catholicism which replaced the Jewish Faith with a
new totally anti-Torah religion. This new religion, though claiming
the same Bible of Judah as its foundation, was based on the oral
interpretations of the Popes and bishops of Rome
It took more than a millennium for the average Church goer to find
the Bible Truth for themselves. Throughout this great time period,
the liberal accessibility of Torah and its oral interpretation by
Jewish sages and wise teachers continued unabatedly since the days
of Moses - though unwontedly for non-Jews.
The obligation to read and conform to the Bible resulted in the Jews
thus always being far more literate than other nations - hence more
successful because they could read and write accurate records of
farming procedures, business, education, etc. This earned them the
scorn of the nations for witchcraft. In modern times their business
aptitude was decried by the nations in anti-Semitic theories of
Illuminati and World Control conspiracy theories.
Home schooling exists in Judaism since the days of Abraham. Only
because of Roman persecution which disrupted Jewish home schooling,
did subsequent Jewish enactment of mandatory education become
necessary. This was like a tragic step backwards for the faithful,
while to other nations it is a step forward.
Modern Opposers of the Guardians
of the Torah
The Written Torah is similar to the magnificent skeleton of the
human body. The Oral Torah fills in and out the body, giving skin,
eyes, body systems, hair-colouring, personality etc. Together they
make the Hebrew people with the Bible the longest living faith.
Remember in the book of Numbers Korach and disgruntled company
attacks the authority of Moses, Aaron and the Elders. Well, that was
not the last attack but merely one of the first attacks upon the
Rabbinical guides, the spiritual leadership of the covenantal faith
community. The Karaite schism likewise has character traits of that
same old rebellious serpent and Korach and company. Korach was
brooding, filled with jealousy and hate for not getting a promotion
in the priesthood. His supporters, Dothan and Aviran had similar
complaints. They were first born and were skipped over for
promotion. The first born had lost a possible aliya potential [not a
right but a possibility]. Because of the sin of the Golden calf
fiasco [only the Tribe of Levi was completely clean of it] they had
one down many levels. Still they felt they deserved an upgrade and
hated, despised and nursed envy and jealousy against the Torah
leadership of that time.
Likewise the essential founder of the Karaite movement. Anan, lost
the position of Exilarch to his younger brother Hananiah. This petty
envy and jealousy led to open confrontation. In stead of accepting
the majority decision of the Geonin [the undisputed spiritual
leadership of the nation], Anan and company opposed the decision and
Ten Tribers and Hebrew Roots folk today, who so eagerly though
blindly are following the modern Karaite movement, should know that
the Karaites immediately declared themselves a new religion and were
so recognized by the Muslim Shihite Caliph as a new separate
religious faith and people. Many of them are actually non Jews and
are proud of it. They were defined by Saadiah Goan (a great Torah
authority) as total apostates and heretics and not as another
misguided sect. They agreed that they were different and often
sought from gentile powers recognition as a new/old religion,
completely distinct from Torah Judaism, with many elements of
For a few examples of Karaite non-Jewishness and replacement
theological tendencies, we have the following:
in 1795 they convinced the anti-Jewish Empress Catherine II, to drop
the double tax that Jews had to pay and were allowed to buy land.
Because they were not really Jewish, even though they claim to have
the real ‘Jewish’ tradition, the Jews are similar to imposters.
in 1827, they [in Crimea] were exempted from army service by the
sick Jew hating Czar Nicholas I and then exempted in Lithuania. At
the same time Jewish kids even as young as eight, nine and ten were
forcibly inducted for periods of 20 and 25 years. Unbelievable
horrors were being suffered by the Jewish Kehillah. All the while
the Karaites bad-mouthed us and so proved their hatred towards the
nation of Israel, that these murderous despots felt so comfortable
with them thus granting them favors. They claimed to have great
qualities while the general Jews were full of the worst character
They were successful on even causing the forced exile of a holy,
good and ancient Jewish community of Troki and the Karaites gaining
sole rights of living there. By 1840 they were officially called
’Russian Karaites’, with no reference to their former status as
‘Jewish - Karaites‘.
These kind of tactics helped them become landowners and wealthy
while the Jews were only allowed to be artisans and peddlers.
In 1840, in Russia, the Karaites became equal to Muslims in the law
of the land. Also independent Church status was accorded them. The
Karaites always did things to promote estrangement from the Jewish
nation and prove to gentile powers how non-Jewish they themselves
really were. We find this in all of Russia and Poland for example. \
During WWII their attitudes ‘vacillated between indifference to the
Jewish cause and some cases of actual collaboration with the Germans
[Nazis] ‘ibid Encyclopedia pg. 776. The Einsatzgruppen gave them
positions of trust, authority and favor. The Nazi Ministry of
Interior said that the Karaites were not Jewish and with a different
‘racial psychology' [The Phases of Jewish History, Devorah Pub.
2005, pg. 148]. The point is they always had the wrong spirit and
the enemies of our people were quick to spot it and therefore felt
and treated them as allies against Eternal Israel, the Jewish
people. The enemy of my enemy is my friend, the Arabic saying goes.
The very worst enemies of Torah and of those charged with keeping
and transmitting it [namely the Jews] saw in the Karaites, friends
in their wars against Am Yisrael [the Ben Zvi Institute of the
Former President of Israel was very helpful with a wealth of
documents, as was Hebrew University’s Givat Ram Campus Library].
The Karaite take on history has largely been recognized as
‘unhistorical, fanciful and biased Karaite sources’, Encyclopedia
Judaica Jerusalem, vol. 10pg. 766, The Rise of the Karaite Sect,
Barron, and many other sources]. In addition, Karaitism was also
influenced by Islam i.e. Abu-Hanifah, the founder of the Muslim
school of Hanafite jurisprudence, was a great influence for the
formulation of the Karaite legal system (which often opposes the
The same Encyclopedia [pg 763] and many other sources point out:
‘The (Karaite) sect ... (is) the result of a combination of factors:
• the amalgamation of various heterodox trends in Babylonian –
• the tremendous religious, political and economic fermentations in
the entire East, resulting from the Arab conquests and collision of
Islam with world religions;
• social and economic grievances of the poorer classes of Jewry,
particularly those ... migrated to the sparsely settled frontier
provinces of the caliphate …’ Thereby (being) rural and out of touch
with the centers of Torah learning and authority.’
The Karaite sect absorbed both such Jewish sects as the Isawites
[adherents of Abu Isa al Isfahani] and Yudghanites (who were
influenced by East-Islamic tendencies and small remnants of ...
Boethusians’). "Innumerable groups … were formed, it became
impossible to find two Karaites who held the same opinion on all
religious issues" Al Kirkisani [founder of a Karaite sect].
We find a further example of the great internal division in
Karaitism, in Ishmael of Ukbarte sect who was violently against
Anan's followers and denounced him as a fool and ass, ibid. pg,766.
You have Karaite leaders at one point calling Anan the first wise
man then later in their careers, I guess after feeling rebellious
even against their own leadership, called him the first of fools,
i.e. Daniel b. Moses al-Qumisi, first scholar to live in Jerusalem [
As usual despite their claim to reject Oral Torah they needed to
invent their own whenever they wished to implement anything on a
practical action, doing level. Without a central recognized
leadership it all became a do your own thing game in line with the
rebellious attitudes of its founders. Without the Sages their
observance led to anti biblically absurd restrictions, anarchy and
became a stepping stone for Jews to completely leave the faith and
fold assimilation, intermarriage and finally extinction [Refer: The
Phases of Jewish History ibib. Pg. 146].
Here, dear reader, for your interest are some offbeat non biblical
positions they take. They only have 8 accents of musical notation on
the haftorah readings; they disregard the other markings [accents,
cantillation notes]. They just swallow, gobble up or draw the rest
of the text in an un-natural way into the 8 motives. By the way
there existed no way to transmit sounds, pronunciations, vowels and
melodies without an advanced Oral Torah transmission system! [Refer:
Dr. S. Hoffman, in: Leshonnenu 22  pages 264 to 265].
In attempts to create uniformity of observance they based themselves
on exegetical methods they had previously bitterly condemned! [The
Phases of Jewish History, the Karaite Schism].
A very crucial Karaite wise guy, Judah HaDassi, used 80
hermeneutical rules, the best ones coming right out of the Talmud
[Eshkol hakofer. nos. 114, 168-73]. This implies their applying
their own Oral interpretation for their selective interpretation.
Anan and company wrongly translated a term in Leviticus 11:19 as
'chicken' and thereby listed it with impure, non –kosher birds. They
further twisted and perverted texts leading to forbidding marriage
between even the most distant relatives, and they complicated the
Biblical circumcision procedure, while forgetting some of its
crucial aspects. They made ritual purity between husband and wife
much more rigid and severe, prohibited kindling light even before
Sabbath but insisted on extinguishing it on the Sabbath [an older
Karaite law]. This is nuts at best, rebellious, psychologically
dysfunctional, hateful of self and family ties at worst.
Regarding Sabbath they even have themselves divided up between
opposing camps of good/light verses evil/darkness! [Z. Cahan, the
Halakah of the Karaites, 1936]. As mentioned earlier they
could not function without any Oral Torah, so like the Catholic
Church Fathers and the Protestant Church Elders they needed to
invent oral explanations. Their own collection of traditions is
called in a kind of negative way a ’yoke of inheritance‘, full of
things not found in the TaNach. The book of Precepts is an
outstanding example of their own mishmash of self produced oral
Very important to keep in mind is an inescapable fact, namely, many
of their greatest leaders and founders, in their moments of truth,
were forced to conclude how together, organized and reliable the
Talmud is in general! They, for example, conceded that the
prohibition not to ‘boil a kid in its mother’s milk’ should be
understood as relating to forbidding any meat cooked with milk.
The Mishawayh al-Ukbari sect of Karaites, although gone, has left
its impact, held simply put that all debates, disputes and
uncertainties, they were to always follow the Jewish Rabbis. In
other words they agreed on the logic and correctness of keeping the
festivals in harmony with the rest of historic Jews and Judaism! Now
get this, this principle included, as just stated, their confused
New year and Calendar issues! If in doubt’ go to the sages [Judges]
who will be in your days’ Deut. 17. Benjamin b. Moses Nahawendi of
Persia is likened to the fathers of the movement; Anan, Josiah and
Saul. He created a doctrine that has been in use for all sects right
up to present times. The point is he told his students to rely upon
the Rabbis for all the times the Bible is unclear to them! [L. Nemoy,
Karaite Anthology, 1952).
Along these lines, one of the greatest wise men and guides of all
time Elijah Bashyazi, took a kinder, more respectful legal attitude
towards the sages than these new guys, Johnny come lately, self
proclaimed recent Karaites. To paraphrase the chacam, Bashyazi: the
overwhelming majority of Mishnah and Talmud is true and faithfully
gives over the words, utterances and sayings of our Biblical
fathers. ‘Our people’ must study the Oral Torah, it is an obligation
and we need to study it with respect.
Moving along in this study, they write off many open practical
Commandments, even those very well documented by history and
archeology, as merely symbolic ideas i.e. Tzizit and Tefillin.
Hebrew Roots people today will, with a little fast facts, recognize
the familiar spirit of rebellion, nasty gossip and slander of
historic am Yisrael by this sect. Even a glance at the NT will yield
boatloads of Oral Torah totally accepted by its main players. The
ethical call not to wear Tzit Tzit and Teffilin in a show off way is
very normal Rabbinic kind of censure; the sages always pushing and
pulling the nation on to higher levels. Greater humility and service
is what it is all about. No mention is made at all, that these
ritual holy objects were inventions of the modern Rabbis of that
time. All the ritual objects were assumed by the NT to be a logic
part of the Faith, right back from the time of the revelation at
Sinai etc. No one ever yelled at the apostles, their teacher or
friends for keeping the wrong dates of Festivals. Nor did they
attack any regular Jewish Pharisees for corrupting festival dates or
for plain making up things about the Calendar or Teffilin etc. Nor
did the very critical Church Fathers attack the Jews for making up a
non biblical calendar. Just the opposite - the NT itself instructed
its adherents not to change anything of the sages who are the living
olive tree - just let it be a Tree.
What does ‘..not a jot or tittle‘ mean ? They are all little lines,
notes, decorations etc, written in the Written Torah, completely,
100% according to the ancient Oral Torah’s directives! Whatever the
NT is saying can only make sense with an Oral Torah explanation and
understanding. Besides, after trying to trick the Nazarene, the
Sadducees, who rejected Oral law, helped Nazi like Rome. They were
the members of the puppet anti- Rabbinic court that sentenced the
Nazarene illegally. They were basically wiped out by loyal Jews in
the Revolt against Rome and were reprimanded by the Nazarene in the
NT that they are ignorant, [being assimilated pro Roman], and that
they do not know the power of Hashem!
Now let us address in a few words the noise that a few self
proclaimed Karaites leaders are making today. Often we have heard
one fellow hailed as a great scholar. Not so in the least, by no
academic standards is this fellow a great scholar of anything
whatsoever. A degree of M.A. in any field does not a scholar make.
He is hailed as having assisted on The Dead Sea scrolls project.
This project spans many years. Hundreds of people have assisted the
handful of big scholars over the many years. Assisting a professor
never made someone, hocus pocus, a Professor. These people did
numerous menial things for the real scholars, like bringing them
lunch, tea, coffee, simple photo copying and basic back-up technical
assistance. There is a huge amount of textual preparation work which
is important, but takes no scholarship to perform. If a fellow was a
scholar, he would not be merely another one from the scores of
little helpers. He would be one of the professors with much post
doctoral work under his belt, not merely a student with a M.A.
This fellow was born and raised in an easy going modern orthodox
religious Zionist way, not as a Karaite. So he had some issues with
Dad, and has a bit of a rebellious streak. That’s all there is to
it. He found in some Hebrew Roots folk a similar bit of unresolved
rebellion and also innocence and ignorance.
Now some interesting fast facts about the loud self proclaimed
recently made Karaites. Several of them were and are dear friends.
The Ministry of Antiquities fixed up an old abandoned Karaite prayer
center. The government then advertised to the general public the
opportunity to come and take over the little facility. Eventually
about five guys showed up to run the place. My good buddy asked why
I don’t join them, just to get the keys to a tourist site is so
cool. He was also working with Tourists and thought it amazing to be
able to possibly take people into a site after hours. Wild and cool
and convenient on so many occasions to have a little hall to use.
This was a reason to start to get a little into some form of
religion. He explained in detail how none of them were Karaites;
they were merely secular regular Jews who saw an amazing chance to
gain access to a small lovely facility. They did not keep any
Karaite festival calendar, nor a dark, locked up Karaite restrictive
Shabbat, nor did they keep any religious Torah Shabbos. They were
secular, he told me. Get it! However, if some G-Man. a rep, from the
Ministry of whatever came calling, he would swear that he is the
most devout Karaite that you ever did see! Over the years he has
kind of bought into his necessary con job on the Ministries. This
fellow, like all the new Karaites that I know, also has a fun,
rebellious energy. Hey, being a rebel can be very positive, when
used in the right way.
Another guy [may he rest in peace] who was the leading scholar among
them, actually worked against missionaries with Reb Shmuel Golding
[may he rest in peace] and myself for many years. He came from a
liberal traditional Sephardic background, not Karaite. He was a
loner and had a serious rebellious personality. Now things did not
work out for himself and his wife and child. The relationship
dragged on; she wanted out desperately. He did not. She went to the
courts, including the Rabbinical one. All agreed, it was time for
him to give her a divorce and at least pay child support. He was
very angry at everyone’s interference and took off to Israel Where
the Rabbis here, as did the ones there, wanted Shalom Bayit
[reconciliation and family peace]. However it was not to be. Nothing
was happening that could overcome the couple’s personnel issues. So
eventually the Rabbis told him to give a divorce and at least pay
child support. Neither of which did he ever do. I tried to get him
for many years to establish a relationship with the child despite
the other problems. It was very intense and involved a great deal of
personnel in-depth discussions.
The point here regarding our topic is his rocky road to Karaite
conclusions did not happen in an intellectual vacuum. They rather
partially grew out of the anger he harbored against the entire
Jewish community on both sides of the ocean.
In brief, this is presented as a public service to the many up and
coming 10-Israel as well as Hebrew Restoration folk. Forewarned is
forearmed. We would not know even how to pronounce the Hebrew
Alphabet if not for the Oral Torah. Similarly, in order to
understand the Written Torah we have to rely on Oral Torah. Without
such a practice, even the Written Torah would not be understandable.
Check this out: ‘You shall keep that which I have entrusted you to
guard‘ Leviticus 18 ;30. The Sages are the management of HaShem’s
Take a look at Daniel 1;3 -16 Where miracles were performed for him
and his friends on the merit of keeping Rabbinic protective degrees.
Let it be known, that we, the manna eaters (the Jewish / Hebrew
people), the children of our great ancestors, have never lost
contact with HaShem, His Torah or our spiritual leadership. They,
likened to angels, who so lovingly have passed it on in each
generation from Sinai to desert drama and trauma, on through all our
trials and tribulations. Through the blood, sweat and tears, glory
and joys, we have always had a living, dynamic relationship with our
righteous remnant, the giants of mind and spirit, our Sages.
Our Mandate -
" The word of HaShem came to me: "Son of man, take a stick of wood and write on it, 'Belonging to Judah and the Israelites associated with him.' Then take another stick of wood, and write on it, 'Ephraim's stick, belonging to Joseph and all the house of Israel associated with him.' Join them together into one stick so that they will become one in your hand.
"When your countrymen ask you, 'Won't you tell us what you mean by this?' say to them, 'This is what the Sovereign HaShem says: 'I am going to take the stick of Joseph - which is in Ephraim's hand - and of the Israelite tribes associated with him, and join it to Judah's stick, making them a single stick of wood, and they will become one in My Hand.' Hold before their eyes the sticks you have written on and say to them, 'This is what the Sovereign HaShem says: 'I will take the Israelites out of the nations where they have gone. I will gather them from all around and bring them back into their own land. I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel. There will be one king over all of them and they will never again be two nations or be divided into two kingdoms. They will no longer defile themselves with their idols and vile images or with any of their offenses, for I will save them from all their sinful backsliding, and I will cleanse them. They will be My People, and I will be their G-d. My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one Shepherd. They will follow My Laws and be careful to keep My Decrees. They will live in the land I gave to My servant Jacob, the land where your fathers lived. They and their children and their children's children will live there forever, and David My servant will be their prince forever. I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be an everlasting covenant. I will establish them and increase their numbers, and I will put My Sanctuary among them forever. My dwelling place will be with them; I will be their G-d, and they will be My People. Then the nations will know that I, HaShem, make Israel holy, when My Sanctuary is among them forever.' "